Research on the Effects of Spaying and Neutering
There is a growing body of research showing that spaying and neutering dogs is not the innocuous surgery once thought. To help you determine if and when you should spay or neuter your dog, here is a collection of research on the long-term effects of these surgeries, as well as information some of the conditions complicated by a dog’s status, from breast or mammary cancer to incontinence. Hope you find this valuable.
EFFECTS OF SPAYING AND NEUTERING
- Earlier age at spay/neuter a risk factor in obesity and orthopedic injuries Stewart, P., TL Entriken (2018)
- Non-Reproductive Long-Term Health Complications of Gonad Removal in Dogs as Well as Possible Causal Relationships with Post-Gonadectomy Elevated Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Concentrations K Zwida and MA Kutzler (2016)
- Canine hemangiosarcoma expresses luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors K Zwida and MA Kutzler (2016)
- Aggression toward Familiar People, Strangers, and Conspecifics in Gonadectomized and Intact Dogs
Farhoody, P, MC Zink, et al. (2018)
This large, comprehensive study of the relationships between spaying/neutering and aggressive behavior in dogs demonstrates that when the many factors affecting aggressive behavior are considered, there is no evidence that spaying and neutering at any age reduces aggressive behavior toward familiar people or dogs, and there is a minimal increase in aggression toward strangers. Given the increasing evidence of significant negative health effects of spaying/neutering, there is an urgent need to systematically examine other means of preventing unwanted procreation, such as vasectomy and hysterectomy.
- Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study C R Sundburg, J Belanger, et al. (2016)
- Neutering of German Shepherd Dogs: associated joint disorders, cancers and urinary incontinence B Hart, L Hart, et al. (2016)
- Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers B Hart, L Hart, et al. (2014)
- Neutering Dogs: Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers in Golden Retrievers G Torres de la Riva, B Hart, et al. (2013)
- Behavioral and Physical Effects of Spaying and Neutering Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) P Farhoody (2010)
- Exploring the mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs DJ Waters, SS Kengeri, et al (2009)
- Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay / Neuter in Dogs L Sanborn (2007)
- Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats MV Kustritz (2007)
- Early Spay-Neuter Considerations for the Canine Athlete: One Veterinarian’s Opinion MC Zink (2005)
- A Healthier Respect for Ovaries D Waters
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BREAST CANCER IN DOGS
- Population-based incidence of mammary tumours in some dog breeds Moe, L (2001)
- Incidence of and survival after mammary tumors in a population of over 80,000 insured female dogs in Sweden from 1995 to 2002 A Egenvall (2005)
- Factors Influencing Canine Mammary Cancer Development and Postsurgical Survival R Schneider, CR Dom, DON Taylor (1969)
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